What Are the Different Types of TBIs?

What Are the Different Types of TBIs?
Calendar icon October 19, 2023
What Are the Different Types of TBIs?

Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) may be mild enough to resolve on their own after a few days of careful monitoring or require emergency intervention and result in irreparable deficits. Regardless of how serious the injury initially appears, traumatic brain injuries should be evaluated by a medical professional.

The personal injury lawyers of Cellino Law have advocated for survivors of traumatic brain injuries in a variety of contexts, from truck accidents to slip-and-falls to negligent security cases. We are familiar with both the immediate, obvious costs of different types of TBIs and the long-term, invisible consequences. 

Our team of seasoned negotiators will relentlessly seek maximum compensation for all your damages, including medical expenses, pain and suffering, and reduced earning capacity no matter the type of TBI. Reach out to us at (888) 888-8888 or contact us through our online form today to schedule a free consultation.

Penetrating Brain Injuries Versus Closed Brain Injuries

Traumatic brain injuries are the result of external force on the brain, as opposed to a non-traumatic, or acquired brain injury that develops from other sources like oxygen deprivation or cardiac arrest. In the U.S., traumatic brain injuries are most commonly caused by falls or sustained in car accidents.

TBIs can be subdivided into penetrating brain injuries and closed brain injuries. The latter are more common. Penetrating traumatic brain injuries describes cases where an object has breached the skull and directly damaged the brain or caused skull fragments to harm the brain. 

Closed traumatic brain injuries are the result of a jolt or blow that was harsh enough to cause internal damage to the brain tissue without piercing the protective barrier of the skull, such as in an auto accident. External damage, such as a laceration or swelling may still be visible, but the skull remains intact.

Concussions Are Considered Mild TBIs, But Should Not Be Trivialized

Most people associate concussions with competitive sports, but other common causes of this type of TBI include car accidents and slip-and-fall accidents. When the brain is violently shifted within the skull, that can cause nerve fibers to stretch, temporarily interfering with normal brain function.

Someone suffering from a concussion may appear disoriented, experience nausea, headache, and fatigue, or exhibit mood changes. Most concussions will heal themselves within a week or so, but they should still be checked out by a medical professional. The greater risk with concussions is Second Impact Syndrome.

Second Impact Syndrome Poses a Serious Health Threat

When someone sustains a second concussion before the first concussion has fully healed, it is called Second Impact Syndrome. The outcome is often fatal, even if the initial injury was relatively minor. That’s why diagnosing concussions and allowing the brain to rest in the aftermath is so critical. 

With Second Impact Syndrome, a person can lose consciousness and deteriorate within a matter of minutes because the brain swells very quickly. Most people who have an SIS injury die soon after or are left profoundly disabled for life.

Coup-Contrecoup Brain Injuries Are Commonly Seen in Auto Accidents

The classic example of a coup-contrecoup traumatic brain injury is in a rear-end car accident where the initial impact causes the head to jerk forward and then immediately backward in a harsh movement. In effect, the brain bounces off of the front and back of the skull, bruising it in two places.

The coup injury occurs at the site of the initial impact, and the contrecoup injury is sustained in the opposite direction. Typically, the damage from the contrecoup brain injury is more extensive. A coup-contrecoup injury often happens in conjunction with whiplash.

Diffuse Axonal Injuries Inflict Catastrophic Damage on the Brain

One of the more serious types of TBI is a Diffuse Axonal Injury. This describes an injury where the brain’s nerve fibers have been torn as a result of trauma to the head, such as in a rapid acceleration-deceleration movement in a rear-end collision. This typically sends the patient into a coma.

With Diffuse Axonal Injuries, the damage is often widespread, as opposed to concentrated at the point of impact. As a result, permanent deficits, such as issues creating or retaining memory and communication difficulties, are common in those who survive a Diffuse Axonal Injury. 

Trauma Can Result in Intracranial Hematomas

Serious accidents can produce an intracranial hematoma, where a blood vessel bursts and begins leaking into the brain tissue. You may have symptoms immediately after sustaining a head trauma, or they may manifest some time after. 

Either way, the condition warrants immediate medical attention. As the blood pools, it puts increasing pressure on the brain. If left untreated, this can cause loss of consciousness and even death. Surgery may be needed to evacuate the blood and relieve the pressure on the brain.

Brain Contusions Often Happen in Conjunction With Other Traumatic Brain Injuries

Brain contusions, which are also known as cerebral contusions, are bruises on the brain. Bruising can result from other head injuries, including hematomas, coup-contrecoup injuries, and skull fractures. This can happen as a result of a blow to the head, such as in a struck-by construction accident.

One of the main concerns with a brain contusion is how it impacts the patient’s intracranial pressure, which is used to measure the amount of force fluids are inflicting on the brain. A bruise can cause swelling, leading to dangerous intracranial pressure.

Brain Hemorrhages Can Lead to Oxygen Deprivation and Nerve Damage

Also known as a brain bleed, a brain hemorrhage is when a damaged blood vessel spews blood either within the skull but outside the brain tissue, or within the brain tissue. It is similar to an intracranial hematoma, but an intracranial hematoma is a closed brain injury, whereas a hemorrhage could be penetrating or closed.

The acute onset of a severe headache, unusual tingling sensations in the face, paralysis on one side of the body, vomiting, or issues with concentration, sleep, speech, balance, and vision can potentially indicate a TBI, specifically the presence of a brain hemorrhage. Immediate medical treatment is needed.

Why You Should Choose the Traumatic Brain Injury Lawyers of Cellino Law

Given the level of loss that can accompany a catastrophic wound like a traumatic brain injury, you can’t afford to risk securing anything less than maximum compensation from your personal injury lawsuit. Our team of knowledgeable traumatic brain injury attorneys is dedicated to securing outstanding results for our clients, and we will work tirelessly to do the same for you.

The Cellino family has proudly served injured New Yorkers for over 65 years. As a well-established personal injury law firm, we can provide you with the expertise and credibility you need to successfully maximize your compensation for your traumatic brain injury lawsuit.

Contact Cellino Law About Your New York Traumatic Brain Injury Lawsuit Today

At Cellino Law, our team is committed to excellent service. We will vocally advocate for you throughout the personal injury claims process and persistently negotiate for a settlement that covers your current and future expenses, including both economic and non-economic damages.

Don’t hesitate to protect your right to seek compensation by hiring the personal injury lawyers of Cellino Law. You can schedule a free consultation with a seasoned traumatic brain injury lawyer when you give us a call at (888) 888-8888 or contact us through our online form today.

Zoom Screenshot_16.png

Content checked by the personal injury attorney Ross Cellino. As a family man and a trial attorney, I pride myself on winning cases and serving the community. With over 35 years of experience, I understand the function of a jury, how juries arrive at conclusions, and the role that the jury plays in administering justice. I know how to win cases. You can find us in Manhattan, Buffalo, Melville, Rochester, Brooklyn, The Bronx, Queens and other locations throughout New York.



Free Case Review




  • Cellino Law was a great company to work with. From the beginning they came out and met with my uncle and myself and assured us that everything would be taken care of from beginning to end our lawyer state and constant contact with us to make sure that everything would go smoothly and it did. I would definitely recommend anybody to go to Cellino Law for whatever help they need. And specifically please ask for the lawyer that we had Mr. Alan Silverstein. He was amazing and his staff was always attentive. Please go with them for your next law needs.


  • Mark Kochanowicz is from far the best attorney you can have. Mark treats you like a friend more than a client. He truly cares and go the extra mile for you and your case, contacts you to update you in regards to your case and keep you informed at all times. Mark represented me twice and settled my cases for way more than I expected. I highly recommend Mark Kochanowicz because he is just the best on what he does!!! Thank you Mark!!!!


  • I just want to let you know that I did receive my settlement check. More importantly, I want to thank you again for all you did for both me and my family. I could not be more pleased with my experience at Cellino Law. From the moment I first spoke with you I felt comfortable - you took a sincere interest in my case, clearly explained the process and effected a quick settlement. From this day forward, when someone asks if I can recommend a good lawyer I will, without hesitation, say "Cellino Law". Thanks again.


  • I am writing this letter to say how much I appreciate your services pertaining to my case. Your injury attorney took a hands-on approach and left me fully informed at all times as to where my case was going as well as how much ground we had to cover; leaving the final decisions in my hands but making sure that I knew all of the risks involved in the choices. I have dealt with a few law firms in my life on various different cases and this is the first time that I never had to call and/or track down my lawyer… because of this, I have and will continue to recommend Cellino Law to my friends and associates.


  • We'd like to thank you for all the assistance and time you spent on our case. Your professionalism and honesty will always be appreciated. The staff was always courteous and we were always impressed with your accountability. Your passion and dedication will never be forgotten, nor will you.


  • Cellino Law and more specifically my attorney, Gregory V. Pajak, Managing Attorney, and as a whole the Cellino Law Firm and its organization. This is by far one of the most professional law firms and attorney I have ever engaged with and retained in my 35 years. The level of professionalism goes beyond words, the care and constant engagement with me as the client was touching. I was never ever just treated as simply a CASE with potentially a significant dollar number attached to my file. I was engaged regularly, Tracey (Ass’t) and Greg always made sure to remain constant, as well as consistent in overseeing that my case was handled properly and that it did matter in many ways - ensuring that the end result(s) would be fair and reasonable to my case/injury. The regular follow-up calls were very satisfying, knowing that you’re involved in your case matters significantly AND always. One of my main items to recognize Cellino Law and Gregory is that whenever I called, I was able to get through to speak directly to my Lawyer and he would answer any if not all of my questions in a very professional and genuinely caring manner. I always felt cared for and protected legally and more importantly, I was made feel as a human being that was being cared for and always keeping me abreast of all matters connected to the case. There was never a point I felt let down, on the contrary -the level of service was “STELLAR”. Greg is the consummate professional, a ‘role model’, if you will, for what other attorneys should strive to become when dealing with their clients.